Geology and Geophysics (GG)
School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology
GG 101 Dynamic Earth (3) The natural physical environment; the landscape; rocks and minerals, rivers and oceans; volcanism, earthquakes, and other processes inside the earth; effects of human use of the Earth and its resources. Field trip. NS2
GG 101L Dynamic Earth Lab (1) Study of minerals, rocks, and topographic and geologic maps. Field trip. Pre: one of 101, 103, 108, or 166 (or concurrent). NS2
GG 103 Geology of the Hawaiian Islands (3) Hawaiian geology and geologic processes: origin of Hawaiian islands, volcanism, rocks and minerals, landforms, stream and coastal processes, landslides, earthquakes and tsunamis, groundwater, geologic and environmental hazards. Field trip. NS2
GG 104 Volcanoes in the Sea (4) Hawaiian geology and geologic processes: origin of Hawaiian islands, volcanism, rocks and minerals, landforms, stream and coastal processes, landslides, earthquakes and tsunamis, groundwater, geologic and environmental hazards. Frequent required field trips. Credit not given for both 103 and 104.
GG 105 Voyage through the Solar System (3) An illustrated voyage through the solar system. The origin, evolution, and present state of the sun and each planet based on recent results. NS2
GG 108 Controversial Topics in Geology and Geophysics (3) Earth-science topics of current societal impact or intellectual implications. Students will select three from a list of six topics, such as volcanoes, climate, solar system, plate tectonics, evolution and extinction, and water. Each topic will be considered in a mini-course module five weeks in length. NS2
GG 168 Planetary Science in the Classroom (4) (2 3-hr Lec/Lab) Combined lecture-lab course for pre-service and in-service teachers. Covers basics of planetary geology (volcanism, impact cratering, remote sensing, etc.) through inquiry-based, hands-on laboratory activities suitable for use in K-12 classrooms. Field trip. NS2
GG 200 Geological Inquiry (4) (3 Lec, 1 3-hr Lab) Principal contributions of Earth science to Western culture: origin and age of the solar system and Earth, interior of Earth; records of organic evolution and past environments; predictable process and structure. Pre: 101L, or concurrent; or consent.
GG 300 Volcanology (3) Principles; understanding eruptions and their products; impact on humans. Field trips to Hawaiian volcanoes. Pre: 201 or consent.
GG 301 Mineralogy (3) (2 Lec, 1 3-hr Lab) Crystallography, crystal chemistry, phase equilibria, and crystal structures. Also covers mineral optics and identification and includes an introduction to modern methods of mineralogy and crystallography. Pre: CHEM 162 and CHEM 162L or CHEM 171 and CHEM 171L; or consent.
GG 302 Igneous and Metamorphic Petrology (3) (2 Lec, 1 3-hr Lab) Survey of composition, classification, and occurrence of igneous and metamorphic rocks. Hand-specimen identification and optical petrography of igneous and metamorphic rocks. Pre: 201 and 301, or consent.
GG 303 Structural Geology (3) (2 Lec, 1 3-hr Lab) Geometry, kinematics, and mechanics of geologic structures; introduction to geologic maps and cross sections. Pre: 101L, MATH 241, PHYS 151 or PHYS 170; or consent.
GG 304 Physics of Earth and Planets (4) Survey of terrestrial geophysics: formation, orbits, shapes of planets. Gravity, tides, isostasy. Earthquakes, seismology, Earth's interior. Geomagnetism. Plate tectonics. Pre: 101L, 203, PHYS 152L or PHYS 272L, MATH 241; or consent.
GG 305 Geological Field Methods (3) Methods used in geological investigations in the field. Eight hours on Saturday in the field. Pre: 201, 202, or 203; or consent.
GG 308 Earth History (3) (2 Lec, 1 3-hr Lab) Physical, chemical, and biological evolution of Earth from its formation to modern times. Fossils applied to dating, stratigraphic correlation, and paleoenvironmental interpretation. Pre: 200 or consent. Fall only.
GG 309 Sedimentology and Stratigraphy (4)
(3 Lec, 1 3-hr Lab) Principles of sedimentology, sedimentary petrology, geochemistry and stratigraphy. Description and discussion of modern and past processes and environments that form sedimentary rocks, properties of sedimentary rocks and interpretation of these properties and stratigraphic relationships in terms of Earth history. Repeatable one time. Pre: 301 and 308; or consent. Spring only.
GG 312 Geomathematics (3) Mathematical methods of geologic and geophysical science. Emphasis on application to earth-science problems using linear algebra, vector calculus, partial differential equations, and numerical solutions. Pre: MATH 206 or consent.
GG 313 Geological Data Analysis I (3) Exploratory data analysis, probability theory and statistics, curve interpolation and approximation, simple and multiple regression, multivariate analysis, and analysis of directional data. Pre: MATH 206 (or concurrent) or consent.
GG 325 Fundamentals of Geochemistry (3) Lecture course on theory and applications of geochemistry and environmental chemistry to Earth and ocean sciences. Topics: Chemistry of Hydrosphere-Geosphere-Biosphere system, origin/differentiation of Earth/Solar System. Pre: 101, MATH 241, CHEM 162 (or concurrent); or consent. Fall only.
GG 399 Directed Reading (V) Individual reading in geology and geophysics. Pre: consent.
GG 401 Introduction to Mineral Physics (3) Scientific study of the materials that make up the Earth. Properties of minerals on micro- and macro-scales; their properties and behavior. Pre: 302 and PHYS 272, or consent. (Alt. years)
GG 402 Hawaiian Geology (3) Consists of lectures, discussions, and field trips about the geology of the Hawaiian islands. Focus is on geological processes and the geologic history of all islands will be covered. Pre: 201, 202, and 203; or consent.
GG 407 Energy and Mineral Resources (3) Origin and distribution of ore deposits, mineral fuels, and industrial minerals. Coverage and detail will depend partly on student interest and background. Pre: 201, 202, and 203 (or
GG 410 Undergraduate Seminar (1) Seminar format, examination of current research topics and methodologies in the field of Geology and Geophysics. Pre: 101 and 200.
GG 420 Quaternary Geology (3) Quaternary records and physical processes of global and local environmental change; dating techniques; late Pleistocene and Holocene climate change, sea-level movements, and ice volume. Repeatable once. Pre: 202 or consent.
GG 423 Marine Geology (3) Sediments, structure, geophysics, geochemistry, history of ocean basins and margins. Pre: 201, 202, and 203; or consent. (Cross-listed as OCN 423)
GG 425 Environmental Geochemistry (3) Lecture course on theory and applications of geochemistry to contaminant/pollutant distribution in the
Hydrosphere-Geosphere-Biosphere system. Topics include aqueous geochemistry, thermodynamics, kinetics, organic and isotope chemistry of environmental contaminants. Pre: 325 or consent. Fall only.
GG 426 Sedimentary Isotope Geochemistry (3) Stable-isotope techniques applied to questions of origin and diagenesis of sedimentary minerals, paleoclimates, environmental geochemistry, organic material, and petroleum. Pre: 324 and consent. (Alt. years)
GG 430 Geology and Mineral Resources of Asia (3) Geologic setting of ore, industrial mineral, and fuel deposits of Asia, its adjacent islands, and shallow seas. Probability of future discoveries in major provinces. Pre: 101, 103, or consent. (Alt. years)
GG 444 Plate Tectonics (3)
(2 Lec, 1 3-hr Lab) Quantitative geometrical analysis techniques of plate tectonic theory; instantaneous and finite-rotation poles; triple-junction analysis; plate-boundary stresses as per OCN 444. Pre: 203 or consent. (Cross-listed as OCN 444) (Alt. years)
GG 450 Geophysical Methods (4) Basic geophysical theories, exploration, and interpretation. Seismic reflection and refraction, gravity, and electromagnetics. Constraints on models of Earth's internal structure and composition. Pre: 303 and 312, or consent.
GG 451 Earthquakes (3) Earthquake seismology. Elastic properties of rocks, earthquake waves, causes, detection, location, and prediction of earthquakes; tsunami generation and other effects of earthquakes. Pre: 203 or consent. (Alt. years)
GG 454 Engineering Geology (3) Recognition, characterization, evaluation, and assessment of geologic conditions and processes (earthquakes, landslides, wave action, ground subsidence) that impact people, engineering structures, and engineering operations. Group project format. Pre: junior and/or senior standing in CE or GG, or consent.
GG 455 Hydrogeology (4) (3 Lec, 1 3-hr Lab) Occurrence, characteristics, movement, quality, development, and contamination of water in the Earth's crust. Pre: MATH 206 or consent.
GG 460 Geological Remote Sensing (4) (3 Lec, 1 3-hr Lab) Combined lecture-lab course on the concepts behind, geologic uses for, and techniques of satellite and airborne remote sensing. Lab work will consist of computer image processing. Field trips. Open to non-majors. Pre: 101 and MATH 241 (or concurrent), or consent. Spring only.
GG 466 Planetary Geology (3) Comparative geology of the terrestrial planets (moon, Mars, Mercury, Venus, and Earth); impact cratering, volcanism, tectonism, geomorphology, weathering; manned and unmanned space exploration. Pre: any 100-level GG course.
GG 491 Teaching Geology (4) For GG majors who lead, under supervision, a freshman seminar section of GG 101. Credit not applicable to major. Pre: senior standing and consent.
GG 499 Undergraduate Thesis (3) Directed research course in which the student carries out a scientific project of small to moderate scope with one or more chosen advisers. The student must complete a document in the style of a scientific journal article. Pre: consent.
GG 500 Master's Plan B/C Studies (1) Enrollment for degree completion. Pre: master's Plan B or C candidate and consent.
GG 593 Earth and Planetary Sciences Workshops (V) Designed for in-service school professionals to learn new approaches and concepts in the fields of earth and planetary sciences. Repeatable for credit. Credits earned in these courses cannot be applied for graduate degrees.
GG 600 Equations of Geophysics (3) Least-square approximation of functions by orthagonal series; potential, wave heat flow equations; boundary value problems; Bessel Hankel functions, spherical harmonics, potential theory, plane waves, spherical waves; emphasis on geophysics application. Pre: MATH 232, PHYS 400, or consent.
GG 601 Seminar in Volcanology (2) Types and mechanisms of volcanic action; characteristics of products; sub-volcanic intrusions; distribution in time and space; hazard assessment; and eruption production. Repeatable. Pre: 302 or consent.
GG 602 Theoretical Petrology (4) Derivation of phase diagrams from basic thermodynamics principles. Equilibria of natural silicate systems. Crystal chemistry, kinetics, diffusion, etc., Applied to igneous and metamorphic petrology. Pre: 302, 325, and CHEM 351 (or concurrent); or consent. (Alt. years)
GG 603 Petrology of Ocean Lithosphere (3)
(2 Lec, 1 3-hr Lab) Petrogenesis of the oceanic lithosphere, including mantle processes and rocks from mid-ocean ridges, seamounts, oceanic hotspots, back-arc basins, and intra-oceanic arcs. Pre: 302 and 302L. (Alt. years)
GG 605 Groundwater/Engineering Geology (2)
Selected topics. Repeatable. Pre: consent.
GG 608 Isotopes and Trace Elements (3) Principles of radiogenic and stable isotope, and trace element geochemistry as applied to igneous petrology, mantle dynamics, plate tectonics, and terrestrial evolution. Pre: 302 and 325. (Alt. years)
GG 610 Graduate Seminar (1) Seminar course in which students present a 15- to 20-minute talk on their research or a related topic. Meets once a week with two to three talks per meeting. Graduate students are required to register for this course once per year. Repeatable.
GG 611 Accelerated Introduction to Geology I (3) Lecture course presenting a rapid-paced survey of geology and geophysics for graduate students. Includes origin of the solar system, tectonics, volcanology, whole-earth composition, phase transformations, petrology (igneous, metamorphic, and sedimentary), historical geology, and hydrology. Saturday field trips. Fall only.
GG 612 Accelerated Introduction to Geology II (3) Lecture course presenting a rapid-paced survey of geology and geophysics for graduate students. Includes Earth structure, rheology, seismology, dynamics, origin of continents, global change, energy sources, environmental geology, and natural hazards. Saturday field trips. Spring only.
GG 614 Advanced Field Study (V) Shipboard and land-based projects. Repeatable. Pre: consent.
GG 615 Micropaleontology (3) (2 Lec, 1 3-hr Lab) Taxonomy and identification of microfossils and their recent representatives. Use in determining age, paleoecology, provenance of sedimentary rocks. Pre: 202.
GG 621 Electron Microprobe Analysis (2) Combined lecture-lab course on the principles of geochemical analysis by electron microprobe and X-ray fluorescence. Hands-on experience with the electron microprobe. Required to operate the UH electron microprobe. Pre: 301 or consent.
GG 625 Seminar in Marine Geology and Geophysics (V)
Current research topics. Repeatable. Pre: 423 or OCN 622, or consent.
GG 632 (Alpha) Numerical Modeling in Geology (3) Finite difference, finite element, and various other modeling techniques applied to geological and geophysical problems. (B) physical modeling; (C) recursive and time series modeling. Pre: MATH 243 and consent.
GG 638 Earth System Science and Global Change (3) Global view of the planet and how it functions as an integrated unit. Biogeochemical processes, dynamics, and cycles, and analysis of natural and human-induced environmental change. Chemical history of ocean-atmospheric-sediment system and co-evolution of the biota. Repeatable once. Pre: BS in environmentally related science or one year of chemistry, physics, and calculus; or consent. (Cross-listed as OCN 638)
GG 641 Origin of Sedimentary Rocks (3)
(2 Lec, 1 3-hr Lab) Environment of deposition and subsequent diagenesis of modern and ancient sediments. Petrogenesis of siliciclastic, carbonate and orthochemical rocks. Sedimentology, sedimentary petrography and geochemistry. Repeatable. Pre: consent. (Cross-listed as OCN 641)
GG 642 Elemental Composition Changes (2) Changes in the chemical composition of meteorites, bulk Earth, Earth's mantle and crust, sedimentary rocks, hydrosphere and biosphere, and underlying principles. Pre: 325 or OCN 623. (Cross-listed as OCN 642) (Alt. years)
GG 644 Sedimentary Geochemistry (3) Geochemical thermodynamics and kinetics and their use in interpreting the origin of sediments, sedimentary rocks, and natural waters over a range of pressure-temperature conditions. Pre: CHEM 171, or CHEM 161 and CHEM 162; PHYS 152; and MATH 206; and consent. (Cross-listed as OCN 644) (Alt. years)
GG 650 Seismology (3) Elasticity, wave equations, body waves, surface waves, free oscillations, seismometry, seismogram interpretation, tectonics, inversion, source theory, and waveform modeling. Pre: 600.
GG 651 Geomagnetism and Cosmic Magnetism (3) Magnetic fields of Earth, planets, stars, and galaxies; dynamo theories; paleomagnetism; terrestrial and lunar rock magnetism; planetary, regional, and local geomagnetic sounding. Pre: consent. (Alt. years)
GG 652 Gravity, Magnetics, Heat Flow (3) Uses of selected potential field and electromagnetic methods in tectonics or in exploration. Processing and interpretation techniques; modeling and inversion. Pre: consent. (Alt. years)
GG 653 Mantle Mineralogy (3) Basic principles of thermodynamics, crystal chemistry, and phase transformation, with emphasis on their relevance to minerals under high pressure/temperature; survey of modern technologies on high pressure research, and evaluation of the proposed mineralogical models for the Earth's mantle. Pre: consent.
GG 654 Groundwater Contamination (3) Principles of groundwater chemistry; chemical evolution in natural groundwater flow systems; sources of contamination; mass transport processes; hydrochemical behavior of contaminants. Pre: 455.
GG 655 Groundwater Modeling (3) Introduction to the finite-difference method; steady-state and transient groundwater flow in saturated and unsaturated media; applications to groundwater recharge and aquifer evaluation. Pre: 455 and MATH 232.
GG 656 Transport Modeling (3) Introduction to the finite-element method; transport of mass and heat in groundwater flow systems; applications to groundwater contamination. Pre: 654 (or concurrent) or 655. (Alt. years)
GG 665 Current Readings in Planetary Science (1) Review of current literature and research in planetary sciences; active student participation required. Repeatable. Pre: consent.
GG 666 Planetary Surfaces (3) Comparative geology of terrestrial planets (moon, Mars, Mercury, Venus, and Earth); impact cratering, volcanism, geomorphology; remote sensing; manned and unmanned space exploration. Pre: 601, ASTR 630, or consent. (Alt. years)
GG 667 Planetary Atmospheres: Origin and Evolution (3)
Atmospheres of terrestrial and Jovian planets. Emphasis on physical and chemical processes. Pre: consent.
GG 669 Formation of the Solar System (3) Nucleosynthesis; collapse of interstellar clouds, accretion of planets, meteorites, asteroids, comets as probes of the early solar system; cosmochemical processes; equilibrium condensation; isotopic anomalies; other solar systems. Pre: 325, ASTR 630, or consent. (Alt. years)
GG 670 (Alpha) Geology of Planetary Bodies (3) Composition and geologic evolution of the planets and their moons; impact cratering; volcanism; tectonism; remote sensing; manned and unmanned exploration and future missions. (B) the moon; (C) Mars. Pre: 666 or consent.
GG 671 (Alpha) Remote Sensing (3) Spectroscopic, radar, thermal, and other methods for remote sensing applied to geologic problems; instrumental design and data analysis. (B) planets; (C) volcanoes. Pre: 666 or consent.
GG 672 Seminar in Tectonics (3) Evolution of ocean basins, margins, foldbelts, and platforms, from plate tectonics and regional syntheses of structure, petrology, geophysics, and stratigraphy. Repeatable. Pre: consent. (Cross-listed as OCN 672) (Alt. years)
GG 673 (Alpha) Extraterrestrial Material (3) Mineralogical and compositional characteristics of extraterrestrial matter and the implications for the origin and history of the solar system. The subject is treated in two full-semester courses: (B) meteorites; (C) petrologic evolution of the moon. Pre: consent.
GG 674 Paleoceanography (V) Study of the paleoceanographic and paleoclimate evolution of the Earth's oceans, atmosphere and biosphere. Repeatable. Pre: consent. (Cross-listed as OCN 674)
GG 675 The Generic Mapping Tools (3) Introduction to the Generic Mapping Tools (GMT). Processing of scientific data and the automated preparation of maps and illustrations using GMT on UNIX workstations, with introduction to UNIX and the C shell environment. CR/NC only.
GG 681 Continuum Mechanics (3) Continuum mechanics in geophysics, planetary physics, and structural geology. Tensors; stress, strain, flow; conservation of mass, momentum, and energy; rheology; geophysical fluid dynamics. Pre: PHYS 400, MATH 402, or consent.
GG 685 Geophysical Inverse Theory (3) Least squares, the generalized inverse, singular value decomposition, maximum likelihood, Backus-Gilbert, Franklin, and Tarantola methods; applications. Pre: 600 or consent. (Alt. years)
GG 691 Geological Data Analysis II (3) Analysis of sequential data, Markov processes, series of events, spectral analysis, filtering, quantitative map analysis, and introduction to fractals. Pre: 313 and MATH 241, or consent.
GG 699 Directed Research (V) CR/NC only. Pre: consent.
GG 700 Thesis Research (V)
GG 701 Physics of the Earth's Interior (3) Interpretation of geophysical and laboratory data to understand elastic and anelastic properties, composition, phase relationships, temperature distribution in the Earth. Pre: 653 or consent. (Alt. years)
GG 710 Selected Topics in Geology and Geophysics (2) Content to be announced. Repeatable. Pre: consent.
GG 711 Special Topics in Geology and Geophysics (3) Content to be announced. Repeatable. Pre: consent.
GG 733 Seminar in Igneous Petrology (2) Current research on the generation, differentiation, and emplacement of magmas. Pre: 603 and consent. (Alt. years)
GG 734 Seminar in Metamorphic Petrology (2)
Current research on the application of phase diagrams to metamorphism. Relation to metamorphism with tectonic setting. Pre: 602. (Alt. years)
GG 735 Seminar in Geochemistry I (2) Selected topics of current geochemical research; application to geologic problems. Pre: 302 and 325, or consent. (Alt. years)
GG 800 Dissertation Research (V)
For key to symbols and abbreviations, see the first
page of this section.