general information
academic units


Message From the President 2
The University of Hawai'i 5
calendar 6-7
undergraduate education 8-
UHM General Education Core and Graduation Requirements 23-
graduate education 28-
student Life 46-
tuition, fees, and financial aid 59-
degrees and certificates 70-


architecture 72-
arts & sciences, AMST-IT 77-
Arts & Sciences, JOUR-ZOOL 122-
business administration 176-
engineering 208-
hawaiian, asian, and pacific studies 217-
health sciences and social welfare 226
interdisciplinary programs 227-
law 234-
medicine 237-
nursing 256-
ocean and earth science and technology 267-
outreach college 285-
public health 289-
rotc programs 293-
social work
travel industry management 298-
tropical agriculture and human resources 304-
instructional support, research, and Service Units  478-


overview 325
a - E 326-
f - N 379-
o - Z 427-


administration 484-
Endowed Chairs and Distinguished Professorships 486
faculty 486-
emeriti faculty 511-
Instructional Support, Research, and Service Units Staff 518-


appendix 528-
glossary 533-
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Last updated 6/28/99



Courses: Zoology
Zoology (ZOOL)

College of Natural Sciences 

ZOOL 101 Principles of Zoology (3) Structure, development, physiology, reproduction, evolution, behavior, and ecology of animals. (Cross-listed as BIOL 103) NS1

ZOOL 101L Principles of Zoology Laboratory (1) Laboratory to accompany 101. Pre: 101 (or concurrent). (Cross-listed as BIOL 103L). NS1

ZOOL 200 Marine Biology (2) Biology and ecology of marine plants and animals; coral reefs, the deep sea, rocky shores, marine mammals, fisheries, aquaculture, pollution, and conservation of marine resources. NS1

ZOOL 200L Marine Biology Lab (1) (1 3-hr Lab) Laboratory, field trips to accompany 200. Pre: 200 (or concurrent). NS1

ZOOL 215 (Alpha) Biological Techniques (2) Techniques and equipment of special use to the biologist. (B) photographic techniques; (C) biological illustration.

ZOOL 306 Ethology (2) Introduction to animal and human ethology and sociobiology; emphasis on social and interspecific behavior, its causes and adaptive significance. Lab optional. Pre: 101 and 101L.

ZOOL 306L Ethology Lab (1) (1 3-hr Lab) Application of methods in demonstrations, films, and projects. Pre: 306 (or concurrent).

ZOOL 320 Vertebrate Zoology (3) Introduction to the evolution and systematics of vertebrates, with emphasis on comparative morphology, physiology, and ecology. Pre: BIOL 265. Co-requisite: 320L. 

ZOOL 320L Vertebrate Zoology Lab (2) (2 3-hr Lab) Laboratory to accompany 320. Pre: BIOL 172 and BIOL 172L. Co-requisite: 320.

ZOOL 330 Vertebrate Embryology (3) Developmental anatomy of selected vertebrates at organismic, organ, and tissue levels of organization. Oriented toward pre-professional students. Pre: BIOL 270. Recommended: 320.

ZOOL 330L Vertebrate Embryology Laboratory (2) (2 2-hr Lab) Laboratory to accompany 330. Comparative study of selected stages of amphibian, avian, and mammalian embryos. Pre: BIOL 270. Recommended: 320L. Co-requisite: 330.

ZOOL 340 Parasitology (2) Animal parasites of man, and domestic and wild animals; systematics, comparative morphology, life history, pathology, treatment, control. Pre: BIOL 270.

ZOOL 340L Parasitology Lab (2) (2 3-hr Lab) Laboratory to accompany 340. Pre: 340 (or concurrent) and BIOL 270.

ZOOL 399 Directed Study (V) Pre: written consent.

ZOOL 416 Histology (3) Functional microanatomy of the animal body, emphasizing vertebrates. Oriented toward pre-professional students. Pre: BIOL 270. Recommended: BIOL 406.

ZOOL 416L Histology Lab (2) (2 2-hr Lab) Light microscopic study of animal tissues, especially vertebrates. Primarily for pre-professional students. Pre: BIOL 270. Recommended: BIOL 406. Co-requisite: 416.

ZOOL 417 Microtechnique (3) (2 Lec, 2 3-hr Lab) Preparation of animal tissues and organs for microscopic examination; introduction to cytochemical and histochemical techniques. Pre: BIOL 270 or consent.

ZOOL 420 Developmental Biology (3) Fundamental principles, methods, concepts, and significance of developmental biology, emphasizing experimental methods. Pre: BIOL 270. Recommended: BIOL 406.

ZOOL 420L Developmental Biology Lab (2) (1 3-hr Lab) Analysis of animal development by experimental methods, using local organisms. (Students required to monitor cultures outside regular laboratory hours; one to two hours per week.) Pre: BIOL 270. Recommended: BIOL 406. Co-requisite: 420.

ZOOL 430 Animal Physiology (3) Introduction to function of organs, tissues, and cells, especially in vertebrates. Nerve and muscle physiology, endocrinology, circulation, respiration, excretion, and temperature regulation. Pre: BIOL 270. Co-requisite: 430L.

ZOOL 430L Animal Physiology Lab (2) Laboratory investigation of function of organs, tissues, and cells, especially in vertebrates. Nerve and muscle physiology, circulation, membrane transport, respiration, excretion. Pre: BIOL 270. Co-requisite: 430.

ZOOL 431 Physiology of Cell Membranes (3) (2 Lec, 1 3-hr Lab) Membrane structure, processes in cell volume regulation, cell-to-cell communication, drug and hormone effects, and active transport. Pre: BIOL 172 and ENBI 402 or biochemistry course.

ZOOL 432 Comparative Physiology (3) Physical-chemical cellular mechanisms underlying function of organ systems; general principles inferable from study of adaption to diverse environments. Pre: BIOL 171 and 172, and ENBI 402 (or concurrent) or BIOC 441 (or concurrent); or consent.

ZOOL 432L Comparative Physiology Lab (2) (1 4-hr Lab) Experiments, projects, and demonstrations in comparative physiology. Pre: 432 (or concurrent) or 430 with consent.

ZOOL 435 Endocrinology (2) Anatomy and physiology of the organs of internal secretion, role of hormones in metabolism and development. Pre: a course in biological sciences.

ZOOL 439 Animal Ecology (3) Principles and theories; examples from current experimental and analytical literature. For students in biological sciences. Pre: BIOL 265 or consent.

ZOOL 439L Animal Ecology Lab (2) (1 4-hr Lab) Introduction to methodology, experience in characterizing populations and communities. Pre: BIOL 265.

ZOOL 441 Revolutions In Biology (3) Major themes in biology as they evolve with time: what is a species, preformation or epigenesis, evolution and extinction, is life more than physics and chemistry. Recommended for senior-level students. Pre: BIOL 172.

ZOOL 450 Natural History of Hawaiian Islands (3) (2 Lec, 1 1-hr Lab) Geography, geology, climatology, biotic environment of Pacific Basin and Hawaiian Islands; endemism and evolution in terrestrial and marine biota. Pre: one semester of biological sciences at college level. (Cross-listed as BOT 450) NS1

ZOOL 460 Avian Biology (3) Broad coverage of the morphology, physiology, ecology, behavior, and evolution of birds, emphasizing the relation of birds to general theory in biology. Pre: BIOL 265.

ZOOL 465 General Ichthyology (3) Biology of fishes; reproduction, physiological processes, functional anatomy, behavior, ecology, distribution, and systematics. Pre: BIOL 265. Co-requisite: 465L.

ZOOL 465L General Ichthyology Lab (1) (2 2-hr Lab) Overview of the major orders and families of fishes of the world; introduction to local Hawaiian fishes; coverage of basic fish anatomy; introduction to field and laboratory techniques in fish research. Pre: BIOL 265. Co-requisite: 465.

ZOOL 466 Fisheries Science (3) General characteristics of fisheries; harvesting methods; principles and techniques to derive data and analyze fished populations. Field trips. Pre: some background in fish biology and aquatic ecology or consent.

ZOOL 467 Ecology of Fishes (3) Reproduction, early life history, age and growth, feeding, niche specificity, competitive interactions, communities, and evolutionary mechanisms. Pre: 465 or consent.

ZOOL 470 Limnology (2) Biology, physics, chemistry of lakes, streams, estuaries. Pre: BIOL 172 or consent. Co-requisite: 470L.

ZOOL 470L Limnology Lab (1) (1 3-hr Lab) Experimental and descriptive field projects on the biology, chemistry, hydrology, and physics of lakes, streams, and estuaries. Pre: BIOL 172 or consent. Co-requisite: 470. (Alt. years) 

ZOOL 475 Biology of the Invertebrates (3) Body plans, development, cellular construction, physiological integration, natural history, and ecology of invertebrate animals. Emphasis on marine species, especially local ones. Pre: BIOL 172 and CHEM 161, or consent. Co-requisite: 475L.

ZOOL 475L Biology of the Invertebrates Lab (2) (2 3-hr Lab) Pre: BIOL 172 and CHEM 161, or consent. Co-requisite: 475.

ZOOL 480 Animal Evolution (3) Process of evolution: genetic basis, natural selection, population genetics, speciation, the fossil record. Pre: one of 475, 475L, or 320; and BIOL 265. Recommended: BIOL 270 and BIOL 375.

ZOOL 485 Biogeography (3) Distribution of plants and animals and processes that cause, maintain, and modify them. Approach is synthetic and dynamic. Pre: BIOL 172. 

ZOOL 490 (Alpha) Seminar in Zoology (1) Reports on research, reviews of literature, or research experience. Required of students majoring in zoology or entomology. (B) general zoology; (D) animal behavior; (E) ecology; (F) physiology; (G) developmental biology; (H) marine biology. Pre: 306 or equivalent or consent for (D).

ZOOL 499 Directed Reading or Research (V) Limited to zoology majors.

ZOOL 500 Master's Plan B/C Studies (1) Enrollment for degree completion. Pre: master's Plan B or C candidate and consent.

ZOOL 604 Comparative Endocrinology (3) Biology of hormonal mechanisms, with emphasis on invertebrates and lower vertebrates. Pre: 435 or consent.

ZOOL 604L Comparative Endocrinology Lab (1) (1 3-hr Lab) Co-requisite: 604.

ZOOL 606 Principles of Animal Behavior (2) Critical review of theories of ethology, sociobiology; social and interspecific behavior, communication, and evolutionary theory. Lab optional. Pre: graduate standing.

ZOOL 606L Principles of Animal Behavior Lab (1) (1 3-hr Lab) Group or individual research projects depending on interest of students. Pre: 606 (or concurrent).

ZOOL 610 Topics in Development and Reproductive Biology (V) Discussion and survey of literature on specific topics; some field and lab work may be required.

ZOOL 615 Introduction to Axonology (3) Detailed discussion of basic techniques in quantitative study of excitable membranes including introduction to voltage clamp and patch clamp methods. Pre: 642 or PHYL 606, or consent. (Cross-listed as PHYL 615)

ZOOL 619 Seminar in Biology Teaching (1) Effective teaching methods, organization of courses, lectures, laboratory exercises; development and evaluation of examinations; computers and audiovisual aids. Open to graduate students in biological sciences. (Cross-listed as BIOL 619)

ZOOL 620 Marine Ecology (3) (2 Lec, 1 3-hr Lab) Principles of ecology of marine biota and environment. Pre: graduate standing in zoology, oceanography, or botany; or consent.

ZOOL 621 Evolutionary Ecology (4) (3 Lec, 1 Discussion) Interaction of evolutionary process with ecological principles. How do ecological interactions evolve? What ecological conditions affect evolutionary pathways? What is the nature and ecology of adaptation? What are the units of natural selection? Pre: 480 or consent. (Alt. years)

ZOOL 623 Quantitative Field Ecology (3) (1 Lec, 1 2-hr Lab, 1 Discussion) Formal quantitative approach in identifying, designing, performing, analyzing, and interpreting ecological field problems. Pre: 439, 439L, and 631; or consent. (Alt. years)

ZOOL 631 Biometry (4) (3 Lec, 1 2-hr Discussion) Basic statistical methods: design of studies; data exploration; probability; distributions; parametric and nonparametric one-sample, two-sample, multi-sample, regression, and correlation analyses; frequency tables. Pre: MATH 241 or consent.

ZOOL 632 Advanced Biometry (4) (3 Lec, 1 2-hr Discussion) Multivariate statistical methods: multiple regression and correlation; multiway anova; general linear models; repeated measures and multivariate anova; loglinear analysis and logistic regression. Pre: 631 and MATH 241, or consent.

ZOOL 642 Cellular Neurophysiology (3) Biophysical and membrane mechanisms of conduction, synaptic transmission, and other electrical responses of nerve cells. Pre: one upper division biological science, 5 credit hours of chemistry, MATH 241, or written consent. (Cross-listed as PHYL 642)

ZOOL 642L Neurophysiology Lab (2) (2 5-hr Lab) Use of various extra-cellular and intracellular recording and stimulation techniques and apparatus as applied to semi-isolated neural preparations, mainly from invertebrates. Pre: 642 or PHYL 615 (or concurrent), or consent and either 430 or 432. (Cross-listed as PHYL 642L)

ZOOL 666 Systematic Ichthyology (3) Review of the higher classification of the fishes of the world. Pre: 465.

ZOOL 672 Acarology (3) Taxonomy, biology, ecology of mites. Emphasis on medically and agriculturally important species. Pre: ENTO 462 or consent. (Cross-listed as ENTO 672)

ZOOL 690 Conservation Biology (3) Theories and concepts of ecology, evolution and genetics for conservation of biological diversity. Topics will include restoration ecology, management planning, laws and policies, biological invasions. Pre: 439 or BOT 453; 480 or BOT 462; and GENE 451. (Cross-listed as BOT 690)

ZOOL 691 (Alpha) Seminar in Zoology (1) Reports on research or reviews of literature. Graduate students required to take this or one topics course (710-719) per year. (B) general zoology; (C) zoology literature; (D) animal behavior; (E) ecology; (F) animal physiology; (G) development biology; (H) marine biology; (I) systematics and evolution. Repeatable. Pre: 491B.

ZOOL 699 Directed Research (V) Directed research and reading in various fields of zoology.

ZOOL 700 Thesis Research (V)

ZOOL 710 Topics in Biometry (V) Selected advanced topics in experimental design or data analysis for biologists. Repeatable. Pre: 631 and 632, or consent.

ZOOL 712 Topics in Nerve/Muscle Physiology (V) Advanced treatment of selected topics under current active investigation. Repeatable. Pre: a 600-level course in the area and consent. (Cross-listed as PHYL 712)

ZOOL 714 Topics in Animal Behavior (V) Lecture-discussion of selected topics. Pre: consent.

ZOOL 715 Topics in Invertebrate Zoology (V) Comparative morphology, development, taxonomy, phylogeny.

ZOOL 716 Topics in Fish and Fisheries Biology (V) Lecture-discussion of various aspects.

ZOOL 718 Topics in Animal Physiology (V) Selected problems in environmental physiology, electro-physiology, or neurophysiology. Basic concepts and measurements of function at the organismic or cellular level.

ZOOL 719 Topics in Systematics and Evolution (V) Selected problems of current or historic interest. Pre: consent.

ZOOL 750 Topics in Conservation Biology (V) Advanced topics in conservation and environmental biology. Repeatable three times. A-F only. Pre: consent. (Cross-listed as BOT 750) 

ZOOL 800 Dissertation Research (V)

For key to symbols and abbreviations, see the first page of this section.

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