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Botany (BOT)

College of Natural Sciences

BOT 100 Freshman Seminar (1) Discussion of hot topics in botany, including conservation of rare plants, invasive species, marine botany, ethnobotany, poisonous plants, evolution in action, fungal networks, and careers in botany with emphasis on Hawaiian examples. Students should enroll in BOT 100 and 101/101L, or BOT 100 and BIOL 171/171L. Repeatable one time. A-F only. Co-requisite: 101/101L or BIOL 171/171L. (Once a year)

BOT 101 General Botany (3) Growth, functions, and evolution of plants; their relations to the environment and particularly to humans and human activities. DB

BOT 101L General Botany Lab (1) (1 3-hr Lab) Lab observations and experiments illustrating basic principles of plant biology. Pre: 101 (or concurrent). DY

BOT 105 Ethnobotany (3) (2 Lec, 1 Demonstration) Plants and their influence on culture and history including: plant domestication and agriculture; plant biogeography and human migration; plant use in religious, medical, and shamanic traditions; and cultural aspects of plant conservation. FGC

BOT 105L Ethnobotany Laboratory (1) (1 3-hr Lab) Laboratory exercises, experiments, and analysis in ethnobotany. A-F only. DY

BOT 110 Biodiversity: Evolution, Ecology, and Conservation (3) Lecture exploring the range of Earth’s diversity, the evolutionary processes that generate it, the ecological roles it plays, the consequences of its loss, and the processes by which it can be conserved. A-F only. (Fall only) DB

BOT 135 Magical Mushrooms and Mystical Molds (3) Impact of fungi in nature and on humankind. Selected historical events in which fungi played a significant role, their activities as decomposers and pathogens, and their uses as sources for mind altering drugs in religious ceremonies and in food and beverage production in various societies. DB

BOT 160 Campus Plants (3) Nontechnical course emphasizing recognition of the many interesting tropical plants seen on campus; origin, status in Hawai‘i, and cultural and economic uses of campus plants. DB

BOT 180 Plant Life in the Sea (4) (3 Lec, 1-3-hr Lab) Combined lecture-lab to introduce common marine plants in Hawaiian coastal areas via discussion of morphology, growth, ecological functions and native/alien status. Field trips to observe plants in local habitats. DB, DY

BOT 200 Sophomore Seminar (1) Presentations by faculty highlighting research in tropical ecosystems. Topics include alien species, biodiversity, ecosystem services, ethnobotany, marine ecology, plant-animal interactions, and systematics of Hawaiian species. Assigned reading and writing exercises from papers in current journals. Repeatable one time. A-F only. Pre: 101/101L or BIOL 171/171L. (Once a year)

BOT 201 Plant Evolutionary Diversity (3) Significance of evolutionary trends in the plant world, including reproductive, morphological, and life history adaptations by algae, fungi, and vascular plants. Pre: 101 or college general biology. Co-requisite: 201L. DB

BOT 201L Plant Evolutionary Diversity Lab (1) (1 3-hr Lab) Lab exercises in the morphology and systematics of land plants, fungi, and algae. Co-requisite: 201. DY

BOT 202 Plant Ecology (3) Lecture with complementary field-based laboratory experience to introduce students to observational and experimental techniques to study plant ecology and diversity in terrestrial, freshwater, and marine ecosystems. A-F only. Pre: 101. Co-requisite: 202L. (Once a year) DB

BOT 202L Plant Ecology Lab (1) Laboratory to introduce students to observational and experimental techniques to study plant ecology and diversity in terrestrial, freshwater, and marine ecosystems. A-F only. Co-requisite: 202. (Once a year) DY

BOT 300 Conservation Ethics (1) Introduction to and discussion of ethical issues associated with biodiversity, ecology, and conservation biology. Repeatable one time. A-F only. Pre: any DB course or consent. (Once a year)

BOT 301 Plant Conservation Biology (3) Introduction to the concepts and principles of plant conservation biology and to plant conservation-in-practice in Hawai‘i and elsewhere. A-F only. Pre: 202/202L, or consent. Co-requisite: 301L. (Once a year) DB

BOT 301L Plant Conservation Biology Lab (1) Introduction to approaches, methods, and analyses used in the study and practice of plant conservation, with an emphasis on experimental design and problem-solving. Includes both laboratory and field components. A-F only. Pre: 202/202L, or consent. Co-requisite: 301. (Once a year) DY

BOT 302 Grant Writing Seminar (2) Provides three rounds of opportunities for grant writing associated with research in biodiversity, conservation biology, ecology, and plant systematics. Students will gain experience in peer review, grant cycles, and budget preparation. A-F only. Pre: 301 (or concurrent) and 303, or consent. (Once a year)

BOT 303 Field Botany (5) Combined lecture-laboratory with intensive field experience for observational and experimental field work in native/impacted Hawaiian ecosystems. Field experience typically held during spring break. Terrestrial, freshwater, and marine habitats considered. A-F only. Pre: 202/202L and consent. (Once a year) DB DY

BOT 305 Ecology (3) General survey of the principles of ecology. Focus on processes influencing the distribution and abundance of organisms, interactions among organisms, and interactions between organisms and the environment. A-F only. Pre: BIOL 171; BIOL 172 or BOT 201. (Cross-listed as BIOL 305) DB

BOT 350 Resource Management and Conservation in Hawai‘i (3) Management of native Hawaiian organisms and terrestrial ecosystems with particular attention to strategies, planning, research, and management actions necessary to control alien influences and promote native species. Pre: college general biology. DB

BOT 399 Botanical Problems (V) Individualized directed research. Intended for upper division botany majors. Repeatable six times. A-F only. Pre: 101, BIOL 172; or consent.

BOT 400 Senior Seminar (1) Current research themes in botany presented in discussion format; reading current research papers. Oral presentations of primary research. Repeatable one time. BOT majors only. A-F only. Pre: 301/301L and 303, or consent. (Once a year)

BOT 401 Teaching Internship (1) Teaching Internship (TI) allows upper division undergraduates to experience assisting in laboratory courses for BOT 101, 105, 201, 202, 203, or other lab courses in Botany or peer-mentoring for BOT 100, as available. Repeatable one time. BOT majors only. CR/NC only. Pre: 301/301L and 303, or consent.

BOT 410 Plant Anatomy (3) Structure of vascular plants; origin and differentiation of tissues; relation of structure to function. Pre: 201. Co-requisite: 410L. Recommended: 470. DB

BOT 410L Plant Anatomy Lab (1) (1 3-hr Lab) Lab study of plant structure. Co-requisite: 410. DY

BOT 420 Plant Form and Function (4) (3 Lec, 1 3-hr Lab) Lecture/laboratory to examine the anatomy, physiology, morphology, and functional ecology of plants. Labs will develop skills in microscopy, experimental techniques for studying plant physiology, and basic functional ecology. A-F only. Pre: 101/101L or BIOL 171/171L; BOT 201/201L; or consent. (Spring only)

BOT 430 Mycology (2) Morphology, physiology, ecology of fungi; their identification. Pre: 201, BIOL 172; or consent. DB

BOT 430L Mycology Lab (2) (2 3-hr Lab) Laboratory to accompany 430. Pre: 430 (or concurrent) or consent. DY

BOT 440 Advanced Ethnobotany (4) (2 2-hr Lab) Advanced studies of plant uses in cultural contexts, focusing upon impacts of plant-culture interactions in development of cultures, cultivars, medicinals, ethnoecologies, ethics, and intellectual property. Lecture/discussion, term paper. Pre: 105 or consent. DB

BOT 442 Medical Ethnobotany (3) Survey and theory of plants used as medicines, cultural perspectives of herbal medicine, and the botanical/chemical basis of allopathic and naturopathic medicine. Lecture/discussion, term paper or project. Pre: 461 or consent. DB

BOT 444 Ethnoecology and Conservation (3) Ecological implications of cultural uses of plants. Examines the biological basis for, and ecological effects of traditional and local resource management systems. Pre: BOT 202/202L or BIOL 265/265L or consent. DB

BOT 446 Hawaiian Ethnobotany (3) (2 Lec, 1 3-hr Lab) Methods and techniques of handling and identifying plant materials used by early Hawaiians and modern Hawaiians for house and canoe construction, clothing, household and fishing items, medicine, and food preparation. Reading, laboratory, and fieldwork. Pre: 440 or consent. DS

BOT 450 Natural History of Hawaiian Islands (3) (2 Lec, 1-hr Lab) Geography, geology, climatology, biotic environment of Pacific Basin and Hawaiian Islands; endemism and evolution in terrestrial and marine biota of islands. Pre: one semester of biological sciences at college level. (Cross-listed as ZOOL 450) DB

BOT 453 Plant Ecology and Environmental Measurements (4) (2 Lec, 2 3-hr Lab) Influence of natural environments on plant behavior (autecology). A field-oriented course to complement 454. Field trips. Should precede 454. Pre: one of 101, BIOL 172, or ZOOL 101. DB DY

BOT 454 Plant Community Ecology (4) (2 Lec, 2 3-hr Lab) Covers selected topics in plant population and community ecology. Strong emphasis on how ecology is practiced as a science. Labs take advantage of working outdoors in local natural areas. Pre: 202 or consent. DB DY

BOT 455 Analysis of Biological Data (3) Application of computers to analysis of biological data; preparation and storage, report production, database analysis procedures, univariate and bivariate statistical analyses. Pre: BIOL 172 or consent.

BOT 456 Plant-Animal Interactions (3) Interdependence of plants and animals, emphasizing the influence of animals on plant fitness and evolution. Topics include pollination, fruit/seed dispersal, herbivory, and ant-plant mutualisms. Pre: 201/201L or BIOL 265/265L. DB

BOT 457 ‘Aina Mauliola: Hawaiian Ecosystems (3) Comprehensive analysis of traditional Hawaiian and modern resource management practices. Rigorous overview of the dominant physical and biological processes from the uplands to the oceans in Hawai‘i. Pre: 105, HWST 107, and junior standing; or consent. (Cross-listed as HWST 457)

BOT 458 Natural Resource Issues and Ethics (4) Overview of the history of land, resources and power in Hawai‘i; players and processes influencing land and natural resources policies today explored from Native Hawaiian and other viewpoints. Extensive use of case studies. Pre: 457 or HWST 457. (Cross-listed as HWST 458)

BOT 459 Strategies in Hawaiian Resource Use (3) Analyzing diverse land and water use strategies of O‘ahu, from traditional Hawaiian, scientific and economic perspectives, through classroom and on-site lectures. Topics include traditional Hawaiian methods, modern development, threatened ecosystems, ecotourism and scientific research. A-F only. Pre: BOT/HWST 457 (or concurrent) or consent. (Cross-listed as HWST 459)

BOT 460 Hui Konohiki Internship: Applied Resource Management (3) A “hands-on” internship in an environmental or resource-management organization in Hawai‘i. The experience will be broadened and supplemented by classroom lectures, discussion and analysis from traditional Hawaiian, scientific and economic perspectives. A-F only. Pre: BOT/HWST 457, BOT/HWST 458 (or co-requisite), BOT/HWST 459; or consent. (Spring only) (Cross-listed as HWST 460)

BOT 461 Systematics of Vascular Plants (4) (2 Lec, 2 3-hr Lab) “Hands-on” experience with Hawai‘i’s unique tropical flora; emphasis on recognition and identification of vascular plant families and the principles and methodologies that define them; evolution of biodiversity. Pre: 101 or college general biology. DB DY

BOT 462 Plant Evolution (3) Major events and principles; includes the blue-green algae and fungi. Pre: 201 or BIOL 172. DB (Alt. years)

BOT 470 Plant Physiology (3) Integration of form and function from cellular to whole plant levels in processes from seed germination, through photosynthesis, growth, and morphogenesis, to flowering and senescence. A-F only. Pre: CHEM 152 and BIOL 171, or consent. Co-requisite: 470L. DB

BOT 470L Principles of Plant Physiology Lab (1) (1 3-hr Lab) Principles of experimentation in plant physiology, includes individual investigations. A-F only. Pre: consent. Co-requisite: 470. DY

BOT 480 Algal Diversity and Evolution (4) (3 Lec, 1 3-hr Lab) Principles of algal diversity, structure, and evolution. Identification of common Hawaiian algae. Pre: one of 101, BIOL 172, MICR 351, ZOOL 101; or consent. DB DY

BOT 492 Wildlife Ecology and Management in the Tropics (3) Practices from around the world that focuses on the tropics. Integrates across disciplines, considers how science based management interacts with world views and considers management plans that are scientifically rigorous but culturally sensitive. Pre: BIOL 265 and an upper level ecology course, or consent. (Once a year)

BOT 499 Advanced Directed Research (V) Performance of research project under the direction of a faculty advisor. Preparation of written proposal, final oral presentation to be given to the Botany Department audience and written report required. Preference given to BOT majors. Repeatable up to eight credits. CR/NC only. Pre: 301/301L, 302, and 303, and consent.

BOT 500 Master's Plan B/C Studies (1)

BOT 600 Grant Writing and Your Career in Science (2) Scientific grant writing from inception through management to completion; students will write a DDIG and participate in a panel. Professional skills including “rules,” job applications, interviews, transitioning from graduate student to academic or non-academic job. A-F only. Pre: current standing as a graduate student, or consent.

BOT 601 Foundations of Current Botany I (2) Discussion of current research and classical papers important to modern concepts in history of science, plant diversity, plant interactions with the environment, and plant integration. Pre: graduate standing in BOT or consent. (Fall only)

BOT 602 Foundations of Current Botany II (2) Discussion of current research and classical papers important to modern concepts in ecology, plant interactions with other plants or animals, and ecosystem functioning. BOT majors only. Pre: graduate standing in BOT or consent. (Spring only)

BOT 603 Darwin's Origin of Species (2) Study and discussion of Charles Darwin’s Origin of Species, 1st edition 1859, and related current literature. Graduate students only. A-F only. Pre: BA or BS in BOT, BIOL, GEOL, or related field; or consent. (Spring only)

BOT 606 Graduate Research Skills (2) (1 Lec, 1 3-hr Lab) Survey of major research areas in the botanical sciences with emphasis upon research opportunities in Hawai'i and an overview of 1) skills needed by botanical researchers including writing scientific papers and proposals, practicing ethical research procedures, and collection of specimens; and 2) equipment used by botanical researchers including computers, cameras, measuring and monitoring equipment, and global positioning systems. Lecture/discussion, laboratory. Repeatable one time. Pre: graduate standing in biological science or approval.

BOT 610 Botanical Seminar (1) Study and discussion of significant topics and problems in botany. Repeatable three times.

BOT 612 Advanced Botanical Problems (V) Investigation of any botanical problem; reading and laboratory work. Repeatable nine times. Pre: consent.

BOT 620 Perspectives in Modern Botany (2) Lectures by distinguished visiting professor on contemporary botanical topics in the lecturer’s area of expertise. No more than 6 credit hours may be counted toward the MS degree requirements. Repeatable five times.

BOT 621 Ecohydrology: Theory and Modeling (3) Vegetative response to hydrologic controls and nutrient cycles; quantitative linkages between hydrological dynamics and ecological patterns/processes. MatLab is used to develop and simulate ecohydrological models. Pre: college level calculus or consent. (Once a year)

BOT 640 Quantitative Ethnobotany (3) Modern ethnobotanical field research project design, execution, data analysis, and documentation methods. Intended for students preparing to conduct field research studies. Lecture/discussion, term paper. Pre: 105 and one of 201, 461, ANTH 200, or BIOL 172.

BOT 644 Ethnoecological Methods (3) Field techniques for assessing the ecological effects of cultural uses of plants. Emphasis on documenting traditional and local patterns of plant use and measuring the effects on plant individuals, populations, communities, and landscapes. Pre: previous course work in anthropology or biology.

BOT 648 Conservation Ethnobiology (3) Practical field training experience for a scientific career conducting ethnobiological research. Repeatable one time. Pre: 640 or consent. (Summer only)

BOT 651 Invasion Biology (3) Theories, models, patterns, and predictive methods relating to the introduction, establishment, and spread of introduced organisms. Application of principles of invasion biology to conservation and natural resource management. Pre: one of 453, 456, MICR 485 or ZOOL 439; and 462 or BIOL 375; or consent.

BOT 652 Population Biology (3) Theory and applications of population biology; behavior of population models, as revealed by analytical methods and computer simulation; application to population problems such as endangered species; discussion of classical and current literature in population biology. Pre: one of 453, 454, 456, NREM 680, PEPS 671, ZOOL 439, ZOOL 467, ZOOL 620, or ZOOL 623; or consent. (Cross-listed as ZOOL 652)

BOT 653 Population Dynamics Models with R (3) Learn advanced modeling techniques to investigate the dynamics of size-structure populations (using matrix and integral population models in R), and discuss various applications in ecology and conservation biology. Recommended: students have working knowledge of calculus. (Alt. years: fall)

BOT 654 Advances in Plant Ecology (2) A research-oriented course focusing on recent advances in all areas of plant ecology. Involves critical review of recent literature, independent research project, oral and written presentation of project results. Repeatable three times. Pre: consent.

BOT 660 Ecological Statistics with R (3) Learn how to choose appropriate statistical methods to test hypotheses in ecology, evolution, and conservation biology and applications using R as a platform. Lecture/discussion, term paper. Pre: ZOOL 631 or consent. (Alt. years: fall)

BOT 661 Hawaiian Vascular Plants (3) (2 Lec, 1 3-hr Lab) Identification, systematics, evolution, and biogeography of native plants. Field trips. Pre: 461 or consent.

BOT 662 High Throughput Sequencing Approaches to Ecology and Evolution (3) Fundamentals of experimental design, lab techniques and data analysis to conduct research using high throughput sequencing. Students will work in groups to conduct an amplicon sequencing study with ten samples. Repeatable one time. Pre: consent. (Alt. years: spring)

BOT 668 Nomenclature and Practical Systematics (2) Modern issues of naming and classifying of organisms, with a botanical emphasis. Includes lectures, discussions, class projects, and field trips. A-F only. Pre: 461 (or equivalent) or consent. (Once a year)

BOT 669 Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution (3) Molecular approaches to evolution, phylogenetics, and systematics. Basic use of chloroplast DNA, mitochondrial DNA, nuclear DNA, and electrophoresis. Phylogenetic analysis using parsimony, distance, and comparative methods. Repeatable two times. Recommended: 201.

BOT 670 Scientific Teaching Tools to Promote Active Learning (2) Graduate level course to train students in the pedagogical tools to enhance active learning in STEM classes. Includes discussions of the primary literature, demonstrations and practice using scientific teaching techniques. BOT or ZOOL or MBIO majors only. Graduate students only. (Alt. years: spring) (Cross-listed as ZOOL 670)

BOT 676 Environmental Physiology Seminar (2) Environmental stress; pollution; salinity, geobotany, and other interactions between the environment and plant processes. Current literature emphasized at multidisciplinary and interdisciplinary levels. Pre: graduate status in a biological science, geosciences, etc.; consent for well-prepared undergraduates.

BOT 680 Marine Macrophytes Seminar (2) Discussion of current literature in physiological ecology, cellular and molecular adaptations to environmental factors by marine plants. Repeatable four times. Pre: 480.

BOT 682 Physiological Ecology of Marine Plants (3) Discussion of current studies in morphological, physiological, cellular, and molecular adaptation to marine environments by macroalgae, phytoplankton, and seagrasses. A-F only. Pre: upper division ecology class recommended, 470 (or equivalent), 480 (or equivalent), or consent. Co-requisite: 682L.

BOT 682L Physiological Ecology of Marine Plants Lab (1) Field and laboratory research techniques and projects in the physiological ecology of algae and seagrasses. A-F only. Pre: upper division ecology class recommended, 470L (or equivalent), 480 (or equivalent), or consent. Co-requisite: 682.

BOT 690 Conservation Biology (3) Theories and concepts of ecology, evolution, and genetics for conservation of biological diversity. Topics will include restoration ecology, management planning, laws and policies, biological invasions. Pre: BIOL 375 and either 462 or ZOOL 480; and either 453, 454, 456, or 492; or ZOOL 410, 439, 620, 623. (Cross-listed as NREM 690 and ZOOL 690)

BOT 699 Directed Research (V) Research preliminary to thesis or dissertation research. Repeatable unlimited times. CR/NC only. Pre: consent of graduate committee.

BOT 700 Thesis Research (V) Repeatable unlimited times. Pre: candidacy for MS degree and approval of thesis proposal.

BOT 750 Topics in Conservation Biology (V) Advanced topics in conservation and environmental biology. Repeatable three times, up to twelve credits. A-F only. Pre: consent. (Cross-listed as ZOOL 750)

BOT 800 Dissertation Research (V) Repeatable unlimited times. Pre: candidacy for PhD and approval of dissertation proposal.