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Geology and Geophysics (GG)

School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology

GG 101 Dynamic Earth (3) The natural physical environment; the landscape; rocks and minerals, rivers and oceans; volcanism, earthquakes, and other processes inside the Earth; effects of human use of the Earth and its resources. Field trip. DP

GG 101L Dynamic Earth Laboratory (1) (1 3-hr Lab) Hands-on study of minerals, rocks, and topographic maps. Examine volcanism, hydrology, coastal processes and hazards, geologic time and earthquakes. Field trips to investigate landslides, beaches and O'ahu geology. A-F only. DY

GG 102 Introduction to Global Change (3) Prepares students to be informed rational consumers, able to weigh media messages regarding our Earth, and to act appropriately. Topics include global change, fossil fuel, greenhouse gases, global ice, extinctions, human nutrition and industrial agriculture. A-F only. (Spring only) DP

GG 103 Geology of the Hawaiian Islands (3) Hawaiian geology and geologic processes: origin of Hawaiian islands, volcanism, rocks and minerals, landforms, stream and coastal processes, landslides, earthquakes and tsunamis, groundwater, geologic and environmental hazards. Field trip. DP

GG 104 Volcanoes in the Sea (3) Lecture with field trips covering the manner in which geological conditions, resources, and events have affected past and present circum-Pacific societies. Credit not given for both 103 and 104.

GG 105 Voyage through the Solar System (3) An illustrated voyage through the Solar System based on recent scientific results. The class highlights the origin, evolution, and current knowledge of the eight planets, their moons, asteroids, comets, and one star, the Sun. Field trip. (Cross-listed as ASTR 150) DP

GG 106 Humans and the Environment (3) Prepares students to make decisions such as where to build/buy a house, sustainable use of natural resources, and what environmental actions relevant to society and Earth's ecosystem are appropriate on a local and global scale. A-F only. DP

GG 130 Geological Hazards (3) Introductory course covering the causes of, and effects from, earthquakes, tsunami, volcanic eruptions, landslides, rockfalls, and other natural geologic phenomena. Open to non-majors. Field trips. (Alt. years) DP

GG 170 Physical Geology (4) (3 Lec, 1 3-hr Lab) Structure, composition and evolution of Earth; processes responsible for formation, deformation and transformation of rocks; plate tectonics. Emphasis on quantitative methods, problem solving and critical thinking to geology. Laboratory and field trips required. DP DY

GG 199 Introduction to Directed Research (V) Lower division reading and research in any area of GG under the direction of a faculty member. Repeatable four times or up to six credits. CR/NC only.

GG 200 Geological Inquiry (4) (3 Lec, 1 3-hr Lab) Origin and age of the solar system and earth: interior of the earth; plate tectonics and records of biological evolution and past environments. Pre: 170, or 101 and 101L, or 103 and 101L; or consent. 101L may be taken concurrently. Consent required for all non-majors. DP DY

GG 250 Scientific Programming (3) (2 Lec, 1 3-hr Lab) Introduction to solving scientific problems by computer programming. Overview of the MatLab programming language and environment. Emphasis placed on good style, logical reasoning and applied mathematics. Pre: MATH 241 (or concurrent) or departmental approval.

GG 300 Volcanology (3) Volcanic eruptions and their consequences. Includes models for volcanic eruptions including explosive eruptions and lava flows, monitoring of active volcanoes, evaluation and impacts of volcanic hazards, and mitigation of volcanic risk. Field trips. Normally fall. GG major or consent. Pre: 200 or consent. DP

GG 301 Mineralogy (4) (3 Lec, 1 3-hr Lab) Crystallography, crystal chemistry, phase equilibria, and crystal structures. Also covers mineral optics and identification and includes an introduction to modern methods of mineralogy and crystallography. Pre: 200 and (CHEM 162/162L or CHEM 171/171L). or consent. DP DY

GG 302 Igneous and Metamorphic Petrology (3) (2 Lec, 1 3-hr Lab) Survey of composition, classification, and occurrence of igneous and metamorphic rocks. Hand-specimen identification and optical petrography of igneous and metamorphic rocks. Development of critical thinking and writing skills. Pre: 301 or consent. DP

GG 303 Structural Geology (3) (2 Lec, 1 3-hr Lab) Introduction to (a) the geometry, kinematics, and mechanics of crustal deformation, and (b) continuum mechanics in geology. Develops skills in three-dimensional thinking through geologic maps, cross sections, various projections, experiments, and vector analyses. Pre: 200, 250, MATH 241 or MATH 251A, and PHYS 151 or PHYS 170; or consent. DP

GG 304 Physics of Earth and Planets (4) (3 Lec, 1 3-hr Lab) Essentials of geophysics: formation of Solar System and Earth, gravity, seismology, heat flow, geomagnetism, isostasy, plate tectonics. Coursework involves application of basic physics to understanding Earth structure. Labs include field surveys and computer analyses. Pre: 250, 303, MATH 241, MATH 242, and PHYS 272; or consent. DP DY

GG 305 Geological Field Methods (3) Methods used in geological investigations in the field. Eight hours on Saturday in the field. Pre: 302, 303, and 309. DP

GG 309 Sedimentology and Stratigraphy (4) (3 Lec, 1 3-hr Lab) Principles of sedimentology, sedimentary petrology, geochemistry and stratigraphy. Description and discussion of modern and past processes and environments that form sedimentary rocks, properties of sedimentary rocks and interpretation of these properties and stratigraphic relationships in terms of Earth history. Repeatable one time. Pre: 200 and 301, or consent. (Spring only) DP DY

GG 312 Geomathematics (3) Mathematical methods of geologic and geophysical science. Emphasis on application to earth-science problems using linear algebra, vector calculus, ordinary differential equations, and numerical solutions. Pre: MATH 242 or consent. (Cross-listed as OCN 312)

GG 325 Geochemistry (3) Theory and applications of chemical principles and chemical analysis to Earth, ocean and environmental sciences; chemistry of hydrosphere-geosphere-biosphere system, origin/differentiation of Earth/Solar system, volcanic processes, natural radioactivity, organic/inorganic chemistry. Pre: 200, 250, MATH 241 or MATH 251A, CHEM 162 (or concurrent); or consent. (Fall only) DP

GG 395 Undergraduate Internship (V) Experiential approach to earth science; students serve as interns to field professionals; responsibilities include supervised field work. Open to undergraduate SOEST majors. Repeatable one time. CR/NC only. Pre: junior/senior standing and consent.

GG 399 Directed Reading (V) Individual reading in geology and geophysics. Pre: consent.

GG 402 Hawaiian Geology (3) Consists of lectures, discussions, and field trips about the geology of the Hawaiian islands. Focus on geological processes and the geologic history of all islands will be covered. Pre: 302 and 303; or consent. DP

GG 406 Natural Disasters: Geoethics and the Layman (3) Evaluates ethical practice of geoscience as it relates to studies of natural disasters that result from geological and meteorological phenomena and the means that earth scientists interact with the laymen. Pre: 101, 103, 104, or 170. (Once a year)

GG 407 Energy and Mineral Resources (3) Lecture and discussion on the origin, distribution and exploitation of fossil fuels, renewable energy resources and ore deposits. Coverage and detail will depend partly on student interest and background. Pre: consent. DP

GG 410 Undergraduate Seminar (2) Gain professional training, practical experience, and evaluate peers on giving scientific presentations emphasizing topics in geology, geophysics, and planetary science. 60% of the grade is based on the equivalent of three oral communication assignments. Pre: 170 (or 101 and 101L, or 103, and 101L) and 200.

GG 413 Introduction to Statistics and Data Analysis (3) Exploratory data analysis, error propagation, probability theory and statistics, curve fitting, regression, sequence and spectral analysis, multivariate analysis, and analysis of directional data. Pre: 250 and MATH 242 (or concurrent) or consent.

GG 420 Beaches, Reefs, and Climate Change (3) Global and local aspects of climate change and paleoclimate; beach and reef processes and response to climate change; management of coastal environments; field study local sites. Repeatable one time. Pre: 309 or consent. DP

GG 421 Geologic Record of Climate Change (3) Explores the climatic responses of Earth's major systems and subsystems (ice, water, vegetation, land) and traces their interactions through geologic history. Open to nonmajors. A-F only. Pre: 200 or MET/ATMO 310, OCN 310, OEST 310; or consent. DP

GG 423 Marine Geology (3) Sediments, structure, geophysics, geochemistry, history of ocean basins and margins. Pre: 200 and 302 or consent. (Cross-listed as OCN 423) DP

GG 425 Environmental Geochemistry (3) Theory and applications of geochemistry to contaminant/pollutant distribution in the hydrosphere-geosphere-biosphere system. Topics include aqueous geochemistry, thermodynamics, kinetics, organic and isotope chemistry of environmental contaminants. Pre: 325 or consent. (Fall only) DP

GG 444 Plate Tectonics (3) (2 Lec, 1 3-hr Lab) Quantitative geometrical analysis techniques of plate tectonics theory; instantaneous and finite rotation poles; triple-junction analysis; plate boundary stresses. Pre: 200 or consent. (Alt. years) (Cross-listed as OCN 444)

GG 450 Geophysical Methods (4) Combined lecture/lab covering basic geophysical theories, exploration, and interpretation. Seismic reflection and refraction, gravity, and electromagnetics. Constraints on models of Earth's internal structure and composition. Pre: 250, 303, MATH 241, MATH 242, and PHYS 272; or consent. DP DY

GG 451 Earthquakes (3) Earthquake seismology. Elastic properties of rocks, earthquake waves, causes, detection, location, and prediction of earthquakes; tsunami generation and other effects of earthquakes. Pre: 304 or consent. (Alt. years) DP

GG 454 Engineering Geology (3) Solutions of geotechnical problems by geologists and engineers through recognition, characterization, evaluation, and assessment of geologic processes that impact people, engineering structures, and engineering operations. Group format. GG and CEE majors only. Junior standing and higher. Pre: consent. (Spring only)

GG 455 Hydrogeology (4) (3 Lec, 1 3-hr Lab) Occurrence, characteristics, movement, quality, development, and contamination of water in the Earth's crust. DP

GG 460 Geological Remote Sensing (4) (3 Lec, 1 3-hr Lab) Combined lecture-lab on the concepts behind, geologic uses for, and techniques of satellite and airborne remote sensing. Lab work will consist of computer image processing. Field trips. Open to nonmajors. Pre: 200 or consent. (Spring only) DP

GG 461 Geospatial Information (3) Combined lecture/lab covering the collection, analysis and use of geospatially registered field data. Pre: 200 (or equivalent). (Alt. years)

GG 466 Planetary Geology (3) Comparative geology of the terrestrial planets (moon, Mars, Mercury, Venus, and Earth); impact cratering, volcanism, tectonism, geomorphology, weathering; manned and unmanned space exploration. Pre: any 100-level GG course. DP

GG 499 Undergraduate Thesis (3) Directed research in which the student carries out a scientific project of small to moderate scope with one or more chosen advisors. The student must complete a document in the style of a scientific journal article. Pre: consent.

GG 500 Master's Plan B/C Studies (1) Enrollment for degree completion. Pre: master's Plan B or C candidate and consent.

GG 593 Earth and Planetary Sciences Workshops (V) Designed for in-service school professionals to learn new approaches and concepts in the fields of earth and planetary sciences. Repeatable for credit. Credits earned in these courses cannot be applied for graduate degrees.

GG 600 Equations of Geophysics (3) Least-square approximation of functions by orthogonal series; potential, wave heat flow equations; boundary value problems; Bessel Hankel functions, spherical harmonics, potential theory, plane waves, spherical waves; emphasis on geophysics application. Pre: MATH 244 or MATH 253A, PHYS 400, or consent.

GG 601 Explosive Volcanism (3) Explosive volcanic eruptions: from causes to consequences. Review of current physical volcanology including ascent and fragmentation of magma, transport and deposition processes in pyroclastic eruptions, volcanic crisis management and volcanic eruption scenarios. Seven-day field trip. A-F only. Pre: 300 or consent.

GG 602 Theoretical Petrology (3) Derivation of phase diagrams from basic thermodynamics principles. Equilibria of natural silicate systems. Crystal chemistry, kinetics, diffusion, etc., Applied to igneous and metamorphic petrology. Pre: 302, 325, and CHEM 351 (or concurrent); or consent. (Alt. years)

GG 603 Petrology of Ocean Lithosphere (3) (2 Lec, 1 3-hr Lab) Petrogenesis of the oceanic lithosphere, including mantle processes and rocks from mid-ocean ridges, seamounts, oceanic hotspots, back-arc basins, and intra-oceanic arcs. Pre: 302 or consent. (Alt. years)

GG 604 Disaster Management: Understanding the Nature of Hazards (3) Combined lecture/discussion in disaster management focusing on the scientific understanding of the forces and processes underlying natural hazards; and human attempts to respond to these through mitigation and planning activities. Pre: PLAN 670 or consent. (Once a year) (Cross-listed as PLAN 671)

GG 605 Lava Flow Rheology and Morphology (3) Effusion eruptions: from eruption to final flow form. Includes: rheology, effusion rate, heat loss, and field measurements, followed by inflation, flow forms, lava lakes, domes, flow hazard and modeling. Field trips to Kilauea and Makapuu. A-F only. Pre: 300 or consent. (Alt. years)

GG 606 Current Events in Volcanology (1) Discussion of active areas of volcanism and new publications on volcanology. Repeatable four times. Pre: 300 (or concurrent) or consent.

GG 607 Submarine Volcanoes (3) Seminar exploring different aspects of submarine effusive and explosive volcanism, hydrothermal activity, and volcano-hosted ecosystems. Repeatable one time. A-F only. Pre: 300 or consent. (Alt.years: fall)

GG 608 Isotopes and Trace Elements (3) Principles of radiogenic and stable isotope, and trace element geochemistry as applied to igneous petrology, mantle dynamics, plate tectonics, and terrestrial evolution. Pre: 302 and 325. (Alt. years)

GG 609 Graduate Teaching Geology (V) For GG graduate students who lead, under faculty supervision, a scheduled class in Geology and Geophysics. The instructor will define the student's responsibilities when offering GG 609, and these responsibilities must be met for a passing grade. As the consent to take the class must also be granted by the department chair, the chair will also review the responsibilities required by the instructor. GG graduate students only. CR/NC only. Pre: consent of instructor and department chair.

GG 610 Graduate Seminar (1) Seminar in which students present a 15- to 20-minute talk on their research or a related topic. Meets once a week with two to three talks per meeting. Graduate students are required to register for this course once per year. Repeatable eight times.

GG 611 Accelerated Introduction to Geology I (3) Lecture presenting a rapid-paced survey of geology and geophysics for graduate students. Includes origin of the Solar System, tectonics, volcanology, whole-earth composition, phase transformations, petrology (igneous, metamorphic, and sedimentary), historical geology, and hydrology. Saturday field trips. (Fall only)

GG 612 Accelerated Introduction to Geology II (3) Lecture presenting a rapid-paced survey of geology and geophysics for graduate students. Includes Earth structure, rheology, seismology, dynamics, origin of continents, global change, energy sources, environmental geology, and natural hazards. Saturday field trips. (Spring only)

GG 614 Advanced Field Study (V) Shipboard and land-based projects. Repeatable eight times. Pre: consent.

GG 616 How to Write a Scientific Paper (3) Designed for students who have collected data and want to know how to publish their work in a scientific journal. Covers the essential parts of paper preparation and submission. GG students only. A-F only. Pre: consent. (Alt. years: fall)

GG 621 Electron Microprobe Analysis (2) Combined lecture-lab on the principles of geochemical analysis by electron microprobe and X-ray fluorescence. Hands-on experience with the electron microprobe. Required to operate the UH electron microprobe. Pre: 301 or consent.

GG 625 Seminar in Marine Geology and Geophysics (V) Current research topics. Repeatable eight times. Pre: 423 or OCN 622, or consent.

GG 630 Numerical Modeling of Physical Systems (3) Finite difference, finite element, and other modeling techniques applied to geological and geophysical problems. Physical modeling of heat flow, molecular diffusion, solidification and melting, deformation, fluid flow, wave propagation, and other phenomena. Repeatable one time. A-F only. (Once a year)

GG 631 Geophysics–Solid, Fluid, and Wave Mechanics (3) Continuum mechanics in geophysics, as applied to the deformation of Earth materials (elastic, viscous, viscoelastic, and plastic deformations) and seismic wave propagation (body waves, surface waves, anisotropy, and attenuation). Pre: (with a minimum grade of B-) for PHYS 170, PHYS 272, and MATH 307 or GG 312 (or equivalent). (Fall only)

GG 632 Geophysics–Gravity, Magnetics, and Heat Transfer (3) Fundamental theory and practical applications of the use of gravity, magnetics, and heat conduction to probing the structure of the Earth; heat transfer via mantle convection is a major control on Earth's internal structure. Pre: (with a minimum grade of B-) for PHYS 170, PHYS 272, and MATH 307 or GG 312 (or equivalent). (Spring only)

GG 638 Earth System Science and Global Change (3) Global view of the planet and how it functions as an integrated unit. Biogeochemical processes, dynamics, and cycles, and analysis of natural and human-induced environmental change. Chemical history of ocean-atmospheric-sediment system and co-evolution of the biota. Repeatable one time. Pre: BS in environmentally related science or one year of chemistry, physics, and calculus; or consent. (Cross-listed as OCN 638)

GG 639 Stable Isotope Biogeochemistry (3) Stable isotope geochemistry applied to questions of biogeochemical cycling in the oceans, sediment diagenesis, paleoceanography, environmental geochemistry and ecology. Pre: 325 or consent. (Alt. years)

GG 640 Coastal Geochemistry (3) Geochemistry at the land-ocean interface: coastal hydrology, subterranean estuaries and coastal mixing and their importance in governing the distribution of selected radiotracers, trace metals and nutrients. Combined lecture-lab with field trips and group projects. Pre: CHEM 162, and MATH 241 or MATH 251A; or consent. (Alt. years)

GG 641 Origin of Sedimentary Rocks (3) (2 Lec, 1 3-hr Lab) Environment of deposition and subsequent diagenesis of modern and ancient sediments. Petrogenesis of siliciclastic, carbonate and orthochemical rocks. Sedimentology, sedimentary petrography and geochemistry. Repeatable one time. Pre: consent. (Alt. years) (Cross-listed as OCN 641)

GG 642 Elemental Composition Changes (2) Changes in the chemical composition of meteorites, bulk Earth, Earth's mantle and crust, sedimentary rocks, hydrosphere and biosphere, and underlying principles. Pre: consent. (Alt. years) (Cross-listed as OCN 642)

GG 644 Sedimentary Geochemistry (3) Geochemical thermodynamics and kinetics and their use in interpreting the origin of sediments, sedimentary rocks, and natural waters over a range of pressure-temperature conditions. Pre: CHEM 171, or CHEM 161 and CHEM 162; PHYS 152; and MATH 242 or MATH 252A; and consent. (Alt. years) (Cross-listed as OCN 644)

GG 650 Seismology (3) Elasticity, wave equations, body waves, surface waves, free oscillations, seismometry, seismogram interpretation, tectonics, inversion, source theory, and waveform modeling. Pre: 600 or consent.

GG 651 Geomagnetism and Cosmic Magnetism (3) Magnetic fields of Earth, planets, stars, and galaxies; dynamo theories; paleomagnetism; terrestrial and lunar rock magnetism; planetary, regional, and local geomagnetic sounding. Pre: consent. (Alt. years)

GG 652 Gravity, Magnetics, Heat Flow (3) Uses of selected potential field and electromagnetic methods in tectonics or in exploration. Processing and interpretation techniques; modeling and inversion. Pre: consent. (Alt. years)

GG 655 Groundwater Modeling (3) Introduction to the finite-difference method; steady-state and transient groundwater flow in saturated and unsaturated media; applications to groundwater recharge and aquifer evaluation. A-F only. Pre: CEE 627 or consent. (Fall only) (Cross-listed as CEE 623)

GG 657 Astrochemistry–A Molecular Approach (3) Formation of astrobiologically important molecules and their precursors in the interstellar medium and in our solar system: first principles and latest trends. Pre: consent. (Fall only) (Cross-listed as ASTR 657 and CHEM 657)

GG 660 Introduction to the Solar System and Planetary Processes (3) Geology and geophysics of solar system bodies (terrestrial planets, satellites, asteroids, comets) and the processes that made and modified them (nebular chemistry, planetary accretion, impact cratering, volcanism, tectonism, geomorphology, weathering). Pre: graduate students only. (Alt. years)

GG 666 Planetary Surfaces (3) Comparative geology of terrestrial planets (moon, Mars, Mercury, Venus, and Earth); impact cratering, volcanism, geomorphology; remote sensing; manned and unmanned space exploration. Pre: 601, ASTR 630; or consent. (Alt. years)

GG 669 Cosmochemistry (3) Formation and evolution of planets as astrophysical objects, geologic bodies, and abodes of life; current understanding from studies of the Solar System, star formation, meteorites, exoplanets; theory of formation and dynamics; atmospheres, oceans, habitability, biosignatures. Pre: 325 or CHEM 351 (or equivalent); or consent. (Alt. years)

GG 670 (Alpha) Geology of Planetary Bodies (3) Composition and geologic evolution of the planets and their moons; impact cratering; volcanism; tectonism; remote sensing; manned and unmanned exploration and future missions. (B) the moon; (C) Mars. Pre: 666 or consent.

GG 671 (Alpha) Remote Sensing (3) Spectroscopic, radar, thermal, and other methods for remote sensing applied to geologic problems; instrumental design and data analysis. (B) planets; (C) volcanoes. Pre: 666 or consent.

GG 672 Seminar in Tectonics (3) Evolution of ocean basins, margins, foldbelts, and platforms, from plate tectonics and regional syntheses of structure, petrology, geophysics, and stratigraphy. Repeatable eight times. (Alt. years)

GG 673 (Alpha) Extraterrestrial Material (3) Mineralogical and compositional characteristics of extraterrestrial matter and the implications for the origin and history of the solar system. The subject is treated in two full-semester courses: (B) meteorites; (C) petrology of the Moon and Mars. Pre: consent.

GG 674 Paleoceanography (3) Study of the paleoceanographic and paleoclimate evolution of the Earth's oceans, atmosphere and biosphere. Repeatable one time. Pre: consent. (Alt. years) (Cross-listed as OCN 674)

GG 675 The Generic Mapping Tools (3) Introduction to the Generic Mapping Tools (GMT). Processing of scientific data and the automated preparation of maps and illustrations using GMT on UNIX workstations, with introduction to UNIX and the C shell environment.

GG 681 Continuum Mechanics (3) Continuum mechanics in geophysics, planetary physics, and structural geology. Tensors; stress, strain, flow; conservation of mass, momentum, and energy; rheology; geophysical fluid dynamics. Pre: PHYS 400, MATH 402, or consent.

GG 691 Data Exploration and Processing (3) Time- and frequency analysis, filtering, factor and cluster analysis, interpolation, quantitative map analysis, and introduction to wavelets and fractals. Pre: 413 or consent.

GG 695 Bayesian Data Analysis (3) Linear and nonlinear techniques for model selection, parameter estimation, simulation and forecasting, from Bayesian principles with particular attention to large data sets and sparse noisy data. Pre: 600 or 691. (Alt. years)

GG 699 Directed Research (V) Repeatable unlimited times. CR/NC only. Pre: consent.

GG 700 Thesis Research (V) Repeatable unlimited times.

GG 701 Physics of the Earth's Interior (3) Interpretation of geophysical and laboratory data to understand elastic and anelastic properties, composition, phase relationships, temperature distribution in the Earth. Pre: consent. (Alt. years)

GG 703 Fractures and Faults (3) Lecture on elasticity theory, fracture mechanics and boundary element modeling, with application to faults and fractures in the Earth. Pre: consent.

GG 710 Selected Topics in Geology and Geophysics (2) Content to be announced. Repeatable eight times. Pre: consent.

GG 711 Special Topics in Geology and Geophysics (3) Content to be announced. Repeatable eight times. Pre: consent.

GG 740 MGeo Seminar (1) Seminar to improve student awareness of trends and practices in geoscience professions, and develop ability to prepare, deliver, and evaluate a professional scientific presentation. Targets abstract writing, oral presentation, and technical criticism. Repeatable two times. A-F only. (Spring only)

GG 750 MGeo Professional Project (V) Practical hands-on professional experience, typically with a local company or agency, and involving a final written report and an oral presentation. A grade of credit is assigned when the internship presentations are satisfactorily completed. Repeatable up to six credits. MGEO majors only. CR/NC only.

GG 800 Dissertation Research (V) Repeatable unlimited times.