University of Hawai'i at Manoa
1999-2000 Catalog Archive





general information

Message From the President 2
The University of Hawai'i 5
Calendar 6-7
Undergraduate Education 8-
UHM General Education Core and Graduation Requirements 23-
Graduate Education 28-
Student Life 46-
Tuition, Fees, and Financial Aid 59-
Degrees and Certificates 70-


Architecture 72-
Arts & Sciences, AMST-IT 77-
Arts & Sciences, JOUR-ZOOL 122-
Business Administration 176-
Engineering 208-
Hawaiian, Asian, and Pacific Studies 217-
Health Sciences and Social Welfare 226
Interdisciplinary Programs 227-
Law 234-
Medicine 237-
Nursing 256-
Ocean and Earth Science and Technology 267-
Outreach College 285-
Public Health 289-
ROTC Programs 293-
Social Work
Travel Industry Management 298-
Tropical Agriculture and Human Resources 304-
Instructional Support, Research, and Service Units  478-


Overview 325
A - E 326-
F - N 379-
O - Z 427-


Administration 484-
Endowed Chairs and Distinguished Professorships 486
Faculty 486-
Emeriti Faculty 511-
Instructional Support, Research, and Service Units Staff 518-


Appendix 528-
Glossary 533-
Campus Map

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Last updated 6/28/99


Graduate Education
Graduate Division
Academic Policies
 - Student Responsibility
 - Admission
Application Procedures and Deadlines
 - Standardized Examinations
 - Additional Requirements and Information
 - Classification of Students
 - Summer Session
 - Registration
 - Enrollment Requirements
 - Credit Hours
 - Examinations
 - Grades
 - Requirements for Continued Registration
 - Diplomas
 - Degree Checks
 - Conferring of Degrees
 - Transcripts
Certificate Programs
Master’s Degree Programs
Doctoral Degree Programs
Summary of Procedures
Graduate Division

Office of the Senior Vice President for Research and Dean of the Graduate Division
Bachman 204
2444 Dole Street
Honolulu, HI 96822

Graduate Division
Spalding 360
2540 Maile Way
Honolulu, HI 96822
Tel: (808) 956-7541
Fax: (808) 956-4261

Graduate Division Records Office
Spalding 352
2540 Maile Way
Honolulu, HI 96822
Tel: (808) 956-8500

Graduate Division Admissions Office
Spalding 354
2540 Maile Way
Honolulu, HI 96822
Tel: (808) 956-8544

Graduate education and research are inseparable in a comprehensive university. The administration of these two areas is coordinated by the senior vice president for research and dean of the Graduate Division.

The senior vice president for research and dean of the Graduate Division is responsible for the supervision, development, and improvement of graduate work. The dean is assisted by an assistant to the vice president for research and dean of the Graduate Division, an associate dean for programs and personnel, and an assistant dean for student academic services.

Graduate Council

Members of the Graduate Council are appointed by the senior vice president for research and dean of the Graduate Division upon recommendation by the associate dean of the Graduate Division. The council advises the dean on graduate courses, programs, and administrative matters.

Senate of the Graduate Division

The Senate of the Graduate Division is composed of the chairs of each graduate field of study. It functions as an advisory board to the dean of the Graduate Division on major policy matters and serves as a forum for discussion on matters pertaining to graduate study.

Chairs of the Graduate Fields of Study

The chairs of the graduate fields of study are appointed by the dean of the Graduate Division. The chairs in turn recommend faculty advisers or committees for graduate students working toward advanced degrees. If the dean of the Graduate Division concurs, he/she appoints the persons recommended by the chairs.

The chairs of the graduate fields of study serve as the liaison with the dean of the Graduate Division in matters of policy, rule changes, program effectiveness, and general graduate student affairs. They advise the dean on admission of graduate students, advise graduate students on their degree programs, review graduate student petitions, keep records on their graduate students, and certify that degree candidates have completed all requirements.

Graduate Student Organization

See the “Student Life” section for information on this organization.

WICHE Programs

See the “Tuition, Fees, and Financial Aid” section for information on these programs.

Academic Policies

The following regulations and procedures governing admission to the Graduate Division of the University of Hawai‘i at Manoa are subject to change without prior notice. Prospective students should consult with the Graduate Division for updated policies.

Although the University attempts to accommodate the course requests of students, course offerings may be limited by financial, space, and staffing considerations or may otherwise be unavailable. Nothing in this Catalog may be construed to promise or guarantee registration in any course or course of study (whether required or elective) nor may anything be construed to promise or guarantee the completion of an academic program within a specified length of time.

Student Responsibility

It is the responsibility of students to know and observe all regulations and procedures relating to the program they are pursuing, as well as those of the University and Graduate Division. In no case will a regulation be waived or an exception granted because students plead ignorance of or contend that they were not informed of the regulations or procedures. Questions on regulations and their interpretation pertaining to studies at the graduate level should be addressed to the Office of the Dean of the Graduate Division.

Students planning to graduate should familiarize themselves with the dates relating to application for graduation and other pertinent deadlines (see the “Calendar”). It is necessary to apply for graduation by the specified deadline in order to graduate in a particular term, whether or not the student plans to attend the commencement ceremonies.

Students must satisfy the degree requirements of the Catalog in force during the term for which they have been admitted to and begin course work in a degree program; or they may, with the consent of their advisers, meet graduation requirements by complying with the provisions of a later Catalog. Students readmitted to a degree program must meet degree requirements of the Catalog in force at the time of the later admission (or of a subsequent Catalog, as provided above). Aside from degree requirements, all students are subject to the regulations and policies stated in the Catalog currently in force. Exceptions to the regulations contained in the Catalog require the written approval of the Office of the Dean of the Graduate Division, unless otherwise stated in the Catalog.

Students admitted to the Graduate Division are assumed to be mature adults and are expected to behave accordingly. All written work should observe high editorial standards, and high standards of academic honesty are expected. Though advisory services are provided to assist the student, the student alone is responsible for following the procedures and completing the steps required in the degree program. Requirements of the Graduate Division, both procedural and substantive, may be waived only by written request of the student and/or committee concerned and must have the written approval of the dean of the Graduate Division. Petition forms are available in department offices and the Graduate Division Records Office.

Academic Integrity

The University has adopted policies and procedures for dealing with research misconduct among its students, faculty, and staff. The guidelines, which are available in department offices and in the Office of the Dean of the Graduate Division, pertain to the intentional commission of any of the following acts: falsification of research results, improper assignment of authorship, plagiarism, unprofessional manipulation of experiments or of research procedures, and misappropriation of research funds.

If a graduate student fails to maintain the standards of academic or professional integrity expected in his or her discipline or program, the student’s admission to the program may be terminated. (See the “Appendix” for further discussion of policy pertaining to academic honesty.)

Research with Human or Animal Subjects

Students intending to conduct research using human or animal subjects should be aware of federal, state, and University regulations and review processes to ensure compliance with protective standards. These regulations cover research funded by non-University sources, sponsored by the University, or conducted by or under the direction of any employee or agent of the University in connection with his/her institutional responsibilities or using any UH property or facility. These regulations also cover research involving the use of the University’s non-public information to identify or contact research subjects.

Students and University employees should refer to the “Appendix” for more information on federal research guidelines and check with their respective academic offices for guidance. General information regarding standards is available from the Office of Research Services at Sakamaki D-200, 2530 Dole Street, Honolulu, HI 96822 (808) 956-7470.


Applicants for advanced degree programs must hold a bachelor’s degree from an accredited U.S. college or university or its equivalent from a recognized foreign institution of higher learning. The standards of the degree in question must be equivalent in both the distribution of academic subject matter and in scholarship achievement requirements to those maintained at the University of Hawai‘i at Ma¯noa. Generally, an applicant must have a grade point average (GPA) of 3.0 (4.0-equals-A scale) or the equivalent in the last four semesters or approximately 60 semester credits (or the equivalent in quarter credits) of his or her undergraduate record and in all post-baccalaureate work.

Completed applications are screened by the Graduate Division Admissions Office. Applications of students who meet the minimum requirements of the Graduate Division are forwarded to the respective field of study, where the standards applied may be more stringent than those set by the Graduate Division. There the applications are subjected to a more comprehensive and intensive review by the graduate faculty. Where admission is intensely competitive, admission decisions are reached through a comparison of the relative merits of all applicants applying in the field or in an area of concentration, if applicable, for that particular semester. The graduate field then makes a recommendation to the Graduate Division either to admit or deny the applicant. The final decision to make a formal offer of admission rests with the dean of the Graduate Division, who takes into full consideration the recommendation of the field of study.

Students may be denied admission for any number of reasons. Some of the more common bases of denial are undistinguished academic records and poor test scores, inadequate preparation and background for advanced academic or professional study, unclear or unfocused objectives for graduate study, or inability of the program to accommodate all qualified applicants due to limited space or lack of faculty to guide the students in specified areas of interest. It is suggested that applicants consult the chair of the selected field concerning their interests and availability of faculty members in their intended areas of study.

The Graduate Division notifies each applicant of its decision. Official notification of acceptance or rejection is generally mailed between February and June for fall admission, depending on when the completed application is received and when a decision is reached. Most of the notifications are mailed in April and May. For spring, notification is generally in November and December. In fields with intense competition, selections are often made early. Incomplete applications are not considered for admission. Applicants should not make definite arrangements to attend the University until they receive formal notice of acceptance from the Graduate Division.

All applicants are required to specify on the application form all current and previous enrollment in any postsecondary institution. Any applicant who fails to inform the University of such enrollment or who submits or has submitted any required information or document that is fraudulent or that has been altered without proper authorization may be denied admission to the University. If the omissions and/or alterations are discovered after the student is enrolled, enrollment may be canceled and the student may be referred to the University’s Student Conduct Committee for possible disciplinary action.

Application Procedures and Deadlines

Application forms and specific graduate program information should be obtained directly from the appropriate field of study (refer to graduate fields listed in the “Degrees and Certificates” section). Letters should be addressed to the graduate chair of the appropriate field of study.

For further information on general graduate admissions, write to the Graduate Division Admissions Office. Medicine and law are not part of the Graduate Division. Applicants should apply directly to the John A. Burns School of Medicine (see the “School of Medicine” section) or to the William S. Richardson School of Law (see the “School of Law” section).

Application Requirements

Students applying for admission to graduate programs must submit the following:

To the Graduate Division†

1. Application form and appropriate fee;

2. One official transcript from each postsecondary institution attended, sent directly from the institution to the Graduate Division;

3. Official Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL) score report, if required (for foreign applicants, as well as some immigrant and U.S. applicants); and

4. Verification of financial status (for foreign applicants).

† Applicants seeking admission to the School of Public Health or the School of Social Work should submit all documents to the respective school.

If more than 25 percent of a student’s undergraduate and/or graduate course work at a U.S. institution has been graded under a nontraditional grading system (i.e., pass/fail, credit/no credit, S/U, etc.), then:

1. Transcripts must be accompanied by official course performance reports, i.e., faculty evaluations (one copy each of transcripts and performance reports);

2. Transcripts from nontraditional grading systems must include course descriptions and grade conversion information; and

3. The applicant must take the Graduate Record Examination (GRE) General Test and have the results forwarded to the

Graduate Division. (Applicants to the College of Business Administration and the Schools of Accountancy and Travel Industry Management should take the Graduate Management Admission Test (GMAT) in place of the GRE.)

To the Field of Study

1. Letters of recommendation if required by field of study;

2. One official transcript from each postsecondary institution attended, sent directly to the field of study by the institution;

3. Standardized test scores (excluding TOEFL) such as GRE, GMAT, Miller Analogies Test (MAT) if required by the field of study;

4. Special application forms if required by the field of study; and

5. Samples of work (slides, manuscripts, portfolio, or tapes), resumes, and writing samples if required by the field of study.

For details, refer to the graduate program brochure of the field of study and application instructions. Materials submitted in support of an application are not released for other purposes and cannot be returned to the applicant. Failure to fill out the application completely according to instructions may result in delays and file closure.

Application Deadlines

Please refer to the Graduate Division Admissions application booklet or graduate program brochure of the field of study for specific application deadlines. Each graduate program may have different deadlines.

Admissions-and in many cases offers of financial support, such as assistantships, scholarships, fellowships and tuition waivers-are awarded early to highly qualified applicants. Applications are processed by the Graduate Division as early as October 1 for the fall semester and May 1 for the spring semester. It is recommended that a completed graduate admissions application be submitted as early as possible.

Applicants who are still in their undergraduate programs should apply after the first quarter or semester of their senior year. They should heed early deadlines for various examinations required for admission, making arrangements to take required tests such as TOEFL, GRE, and GMAT several months prior to the application deadline.

Spring Deadlines

There is no spring admission to anthropology, astronomy, biomedical sciences (biostatistics/epidemiology), communication, communication and information sciences, computer science, education (PhD degree), educational psychology (PhD degree), English, English as a second language, geography, international management, nursing, political science, psychology, public health (DrPH degree), religion, social work, social welfare, teaching, and zoology.

International Applicants

International applicants must submit official academic records in the original language accompanied by certified English translations. These translations must bear either the embossed seal or inked stamp of the issuing institution or governmental agency or the original signature of the translator, and they must be complete and exact word-for-word translations of the original documents. 

Students studying in Commonwealth countries or under a system of education that follows the British pattern of examination and grading, where the classification for the degree (e.g., First Class, Second Class) is based on the final year examination, should apply after the degree has been awarded. This applies to students from the United Kingdom, Australia, New Zealand, Hong Kong, Singapore, Malaysia, Sri Lanka, and some African countries. An official certificate showing the award of the degree with the division and class standing must be submitted with the application.

With the exception of holders of a four- or five-year BEng, BArch, BAgr, BTech, or MBBS degree, applicants who have attended or are attending higher education institutions in India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Nepal, and Myanmar must present a completed master’s degree (a U.S. bachelor’s degree equivalent) at the time the application is filed.

English Language Institute

International and immigrant students admitted to the University whose native language is not English are referred to the English Language Institute to determine if they must take the ELI placement examinations. If a student does not fulfill this obligation, ELI will place a hold on the student’s registration. Please refer to the “English as a Second Language” section within the Colleges of Arts and Sciences for additional information.

Standardized Examinations

As a service to in-state students, standardized test application forms are available at the Counseling and Student Development Center, (808) 956-3454. Out-of-state students and applicants from foreign countries should write to the address designated for each examination (see pertinent section below).

Individuals with visual, physical, hearing, or learning disabilities who are required to take either the GRE or GMAT should contact the Educational Testing Service for information regarding special arrangements to take these examinations.

Graduate Record Examination

The GRE and subtests may be required by some fields of study and recommended by others. The GRE testing program will have a significant change in 1999 that may affect the graduate admissions requirements for some fields of study. For the requirements of the individual fields of study, consult the relevant field of study descriptions in this Catalog and the instruction sheet of the graduate application form. The GRE General Test (Package 1) is also required by the Graduate Division for students who have completed 25 percent or more of their undergraduate work under a nontraditional grading system. Test information is available through the Counseling and Student Development Center, (808) 956-7927. Applicants may request test registration forms directly from Graduate Record Examinations, Educational Testing Service (ETS), Box 6004, Princeton, NJ 08541-6004. Submit completed registration forms and test fees to ETS at least one month before the examination date.

Graduate Management Admission Test

The GMAT is required by the college or school for admission to the master’s program in business administration, accounting, or travel industry management. It is also required by the Graduate Division of students who have completed 25 percent or more of their undergraduate work under a nontraditional grading system. Applicants may request test registration forms directly from GMAT, Educational Testing Service, Box 6103, Princeton, NJ 08541-6103. Submit completed forms and test fees to ETS at least five weeks before the examination date.

Since applications are not reviewed unless GMAT scores are received on time, the test must be taken no later than the preceding June for admission in the spring and no later than the preceding January for admission in the fall.

Miller Analogies Test

In addition to the GRE, the MAT is required for admission to the EdD degree program. Applicants should contact a college or university in their area or the Psychological Corporation, Controlled Testing Center, 555 Academic Court, San Antonio, TX 78204-9052 for information and specific test dates.

Test of English as a Foreign Language

All applicants whose native language is not English must submit an official TOEFL score report from a test taken within the past two years. The TOEFL is waived for applicants who have earned a bachelor’s or advanced degree within the past five years from an accredited or recognized institution in the United States, Australia, Canada, New Zealand, or United Kingdom. The program of study must have entailed no less than two years of full-time course work.

Final admission requires submission of the official TOEFL results. Applicants should, therefore, obtain the TOEFL Bulletin of Information early to check on the availability of the test and should take the test in time to meet graduate admissions application deadlines. TOEFL scores more than two years old are not acceptable and are not reported by the Educational Testing Service.

The TOEFL is administered at centers throughout the world. Students who wish to take the TOEFL outside the United States should obtain the TOEFL Bulletin of Information for Candidates, International Edition. This bulletin is generally available at U.S. embassies and consulates and at binational educational commissions and consulates abroad. Applicants may also order a bulletin directly from the representative who serves the area or country in which they plan to take the test.

Additional Requirements and Information

Renewal of Application

Newly accepted students who do not register in the program during the semester for which they are admitted or who withdraw from all courses within the designated withdrawal period (see the “Calendar” for designated withdrawal dates) are considered no-shows and their admission status is rendered invalid. If applying for readmission within a two-year period, the student must submit a renewal application plus copies of official transcripts for any additional course work completed since the last application; the deadline for renewal applications is the same as for all other applications. After two years, the student must follow the same procedure as first-time applicants. A new application fee is also required if more than one semester has passed since the last fee was remitted.

Change in Field of Study

Graduate students who wish to change their field of study must submit a change in field application to the Graduate Division Admissions Office by the respective fall and spring deadlines.

Letters of recommendation and GRE, MAT, or GMAT test scores (if required by the field of study) must be received by the field of study by the application deadline.

A change in field is not permitted during the student’s current semester of enrollment. The prospective field will review the student’s application for a change along with new applications for the semester in question. The new field may or may not recommend acceptance.

Students who apply for a change in field are considered to be withdrawing from their current field. A student may return to the current field only by petition to, and approval of, the graduate field and the Graduate Division.


Classified graduate students who wish to re-enroll after a lapse in enrollment of one or more semesters must apply for readmission. Such students must submit the following documents to the Graduate Division Records Office by the established deadlines:

1. Readmission petition;

2. Biographical information form;

3. Residence form;

4. Supplementary information form for non-U.S. citizens (if applicable);

5. Statement of intent to register;

6. Health form;

7. Transcripts reflecting any studies since last admission to the University of Hawai‘i Graduate Division; and

8. Any other material requested by the field of study (e.g., current test scores).

Students who are readmitted will be subject to the degree requirements in effect at the time of readmission.

Document Retention

Applications and supporting documents in the following categories are retained by the Graduate Division for limited periods as indicated.

Incomplete applications--one semester.

Applications with no action taken by graduate field of study; denials (those denied admission); no-shows (those not enrolled in the semester of admission); and test scores (TOEFL scores, master file of GRE scores)--two years.

Academic records of graduated students--five years.

Academic records of inactive students--seven years.

Classification of Students

Students (baccalaureate graduates of the University or of other institutions of approved standing) who have been admitted to an advanced degree, certificate program, or special non-degree program by the Graduate Division are designated as classified (regular, conditional, or special non-degree) graduate students.

Students who have not been admitted to an advanced degree or special non-degree program by the Graduate Division and who wish to take classes may register as post-baccalaureate unclassified (PBU) students.

Regular Graduate Student

An applicant will be eligible for admission as a “regular” classified graduate student if he/she has the following:

1. A GPA of 3.0 or better in the last four semesters or approximately 60 semester credits (or the equivalent in quarter credits) of work as an undergraduate;

2. A master’s degree with a GPA of 3.0 or better; or

3. A GPA of 3.0 or better in at least 12 credit hours of relevant upper division and/or graduate-level post-baccalaureate work.

Students who meet the minimum GPA requirements in category 1 above but whose GPA for 12 credit hours of upper division and/or graduate-level post-baccalaureate work is below 3.0 are not generally admissible. International students with a GPA of less than a B average in their undergraduate work and/or less than a B average in 12 credit hours of post-baccalaureate work are generally not admissible.

Conditional Graduate Student

An applicant not meeting the regular graduate student requirements may be eligible for admission as a “conditional” graduate student if he/she has a GPA of 2.7 to 2.9 in the last four semesters or approximately 60 semester credits (or the equivalent in quarter credits) of work as an undergraduate. To change from conditional to regular status, the student must complete 12 credit hours with a B average in courses numbered 300 and above that are relevant to the degree. International students are generally not admitted as conditional graduate students.

Special Non-degree Graduate Students

Special non-degree graduate students are admitted by the Graduate Division as classified graduate students for a specified program of study, research, or training without degree objectives for a limited period of time (usually one year) under the sponsorship of an educational institution or government agency. International self-sponsored students and students who would not otherwise qualify for admission as classified graduate students may not utilize this category for admission to the University.

Post-Baccalaureate Unclassified Students

Post-Baccalaureate unclassified (PBU) students have not been admitted to an advanced degree program and are therefore not part of the Graduate Division. Those who wish to take Manoa campus courses as PBU students may apply for admission to the Office of Admissions and Records, University of Hawai‘i at Manoa, Student Services 001, 2600 Campus Road, Honolulu, HI 96822. An application and official verification of a bachelor’s degree or advanced degree earned at an accredited college or university are required. Consult the Schedule of Classes for deadlines. PBU students who plan to apply for classified graduate status in the future should consult with the graduate chair of the field of study in which they are interested.

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